May 2011 Archives

I am excited to announce that I have completed my next grant milestone! I recently increased test coverage of extend_vtable.c to over 95% ( 95.5% to be exact), achieving the milestone with a half percent buffer. It definitely wasn't easy, but I changed the way I was approaching writing tests and it resulted in a huge burst of productivity.

I went through a test coverage report and wrote down, on an actual piece of paper, every function that had no test coverage. This allowed me to circle the functions that I thought would be easiest to write tests for, and quickly got those out of the way. I then went for uncovered functions that were similar to already covered functions, and then finally I got to the hard functions.

This was a fruitful exercise, because it was decided by Parrot developers that some VTABLE functions escaped accidentally and that they should be removed from the public API. Whiteknight++ removed Parrot_PMC_destroy (extra points for humor), which I was using incorrectly in the extend_vtable tests and which was actually coredumping Parrot, but only on certain platforms. I then removed Parrot_PMC_mark and Parrot_PMC_invoke, the first being an implementation detail of the garbage collector, and Parrot_PMC_invoke because it was the only function that returned a '''Parrot_Opcode_t*''' and basically not fit for public consumption.

I also created a ticket (TT#2126) for a bug in the Parrot_PMC_morph function, which has some possibly buggy but definitely unspecified behavior.

The remaining, untested functions in extend_vtable are clone_pmc, cmp_pmc, get_pointer_keyed_int, get_pointer_keyed_str, remove_vtable_override, set_pointer_keyed and set_pointer_keyed_str. I leave the testing of these functions as an exercise to the interested reader :)

Grant Refactoring

This reminds me of a saying, I can't remember it exactly, but it is something about the best laid plans of camels and butterflies often taste like onions. Anyway, since I wrote my grant, the Parrot Embed API was deprecated and replaced with a shinier and better documented system. After talking with cotto++ and whiteknight++ on IRC, it was decided that working on test coverage for the new embed API was a better use of resources than writing tests for the old embed API that my original grant referred to, which will most likely be removed from Parrot soon.

The new embed API is called src/embed/api.c and the plan is to replace my grant milestone of 95% coverage of embed.c with 95% coverage of embed/api.c, which is currently at 72% coverage.

To summarize, I have two grant milestones left, increasing extend.c (currently at 61% ) and embed/api.c to 95% coverage.

Given the lessons learned from testing extend_vtable and based on the fact that I have already made some headway, my new estimate for these milestones is three weeks each. To make this more definite, I plan to be done with this grant work by July 15th.

This is the home stretch! I can feel it in my bones.

What is M0 ?

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I met with fellow Parrot hackers allison++, cotto++ and chromatic++ recently in Portland, OR (it was jokingly called YAPC::OR on IRC) to talk about what we call M0. M0 stands for "magic level 0" and it is a refactoring of Parrot internals in a fundamental way.

cotto++ and I have been hacking on a detailed spec (over 35 pages now!) and a "final prototype" in Perl 5 in the last few weeks. M0 is as "magic level 0", which means it consists of the most basic building blocks of a virtual machine, which the rest of the VM can be built with. The term "magic" means high-level constructs and conveniences, such as objects, lexical variables, classes and their associated syntax sugar. M0 is not meant to be written by humans, except during bootstrapping. In the future, M0 will be probably be generated from Parrot Intermediate Representation (PIR), Not Quite Perl 6 (NQP) or other High Level Languages (HLLs).

The most important reason for M0 is to correct the fact that too much of Parrot internals are written in C. Parrot internals is constantly switching between code written in PIR, other HLL's such as NQP and C. Many types of optimizations go right out the window when you cross a language boundary. It is best for a virtual machine to minimize crossing language boundaries if an efficient JIT compiler is wanted, which we definitely desire. Since many hotpaths in Parrot internals cross between PIR and C, they can't be inlined or optimized as much as we would like.

A few years back, Parrot had a JIT compiler, from which many lessons were learned. I am sure some people were frustrated when we removed it in 1.7.0 but sometimes, it is best to start from a clean slate with many more lessons learned under your belt. Our old JIT did support multiple architectures but required maintaining a "JIT version" of every opcode on each architecture supported. Clearly, this method was not going to scale or be maintainable.

I will venture to say that M0 is the culmination of the lessons learned from our failed JIT. I should note that "failure" does not have a negative connotation in my mind. Indeed, only through failure are we truly learning. If you do something absolutely perfectly, you aren't learning.

We are at an exciting time in Parrot's history, in that for a long time, we wanted an elegant JIT, using all the latest spiffy techniques, but it was always an abstract idea, "just over there", but not enough to grab a-hold of. A new JIT that meets these goals absolutely requires something like M0, and is the driving force for its design. M0 will pave the way for an efficient JIT to be implemented on Parrot.

M0 currently consists of under 40 opcodes from which (we wager) all the rest of Parrot can be built upon. This is radically different from how Parrot currently works, where all of the deepest internals of Parrot are written in heavily macroized ANSI 89 C.

M0 has a source code, i.e. textual form and a bytecode form. chromatic++ brought up a good point at the beginning of the meeting about the bytecode file containing a cryptographic hash of the bytecode. This will allow one to distribute bytecode which can then be cryptographically verified by whoever eventually runs the bytecode. This is a very "fun" application of cryptography that I will be looking into further.

allison++ brought up some good questions about how merging bytecode files would be done. We hadn't really thought about that, so it lead to some fruitful conversation about how Parrot Bytecode (PBC) is currently merged, what it does wrong, and how M0 can do it less wronger.

We then talked about what exactly a "Continuation" in M0 means, and tried to clear up some definitions between what is actually meant by Context, State and Continuation.

chromatic++ also mentioned that an optional optimization for the garbage collector (GC) would be for it to create a memory pool solely to store Continuations, since they will be heavily used and many of them will be short-lived and reference each other, so having them in a small confined memory region will reduce cache misses. We are filing this under "good to know and we will do that when we get there."

Next we turned to concurrency, including how we would emulate the various concurrency models of the languages we want to support, such as Python's Global Interpreter Lock (GIL). We decided that M0 will totally ignorant of concurrency concepts, since it is a "magical" concept that will be implemented at a higher level. We have started to refer to the level above M0 as M1 and everything above M0 as M1+.

allison++ also mentioned that many innovations and optimizations are possible in storing isolated register sets for each Continuation (a.k.a call frame). This area of Parrot may yield some interesting surprises and perhaps some publishable findings.

We all agreed that M0 should be as ignorant about the GC as possible, but the GC will most likely learn about M0 as optimizations are implemented. The pluggability of our GC's were also talked about. allison++ raised the question "Are pluggable GC's easier to maintain/implement if they are only pluggable at compile-time?" Indeed, they probably are, but then we run into the issue that our current "make fulltest" runs our test suite under different GC's, which would require multiple compiles for a single test suite run. chromatic++ made a suggestion that we could instead make GC's pluggable at link-time (which would require a decent amount of reorganization) which would still allow developers to easily test different GC's without recompiling all of Parrot. chromatic++'s estimate is that removing runtime pluggability of GC's would result in an across the board speed improvement of 5%.

This conversation then turned toward the fact that M0 bytecode might depend on what GC was used when it was generated, i.e. the same M0 source code run under two different GC's would generate two different bytecode representations. This would happen if the M0 alloc() opcode assumes C calling conventions. This was generally deemed distasteful, so our alloc() opcode will not "bake in C assumptions", which is a good general principle, as well. This will be a fun test to write.

allison++ brought up the fact that we may need a way to tell the GC "this is allocated but uninitialized memory", a.k.a solve the "infant mortality" problem. chromatic++ suggested that we could add some kind of lifespan flag to our alloc opcode (which currently has an arbitrary/unused argument, since all M0 opcodes take 3 arguments for symmetry and performance reasons). This could be as simple as hints that a variable is local or global, or a more detailed delineation using bit flags.

It was also decided that we didn't need an invoke opcode and that invoke properly belongs as a VTABLE method on invokables.

We also talked about the fact that register machines greatly benefit from concentrating VM operations on either the caller or the callee side. Looking for more references about this. It seems that the callee side seems to be what we will try for, but I am not quite sure why.

We finally talked about calling conventions and decided that goto_chunk should roughly be equivalent to a jmp (assembly unconditional jump to address) and the invoke VTABLE would setup a return continuation (i.e. make a copy of the program counter), do a goto_chunk, and let the callee handle the rest, such as looking up a return continuation and invoking it.

After the main M0 meeting, cotto++, allison++ and I sat down at a coffee shop and came up with a list of next actions for M0:

  • Write a recursive version of 'calculate the n-th Fibonacci number' in M0
  • Write a simple checksum algorithm in M0 (suggestions?)
  • Create a working PMC in M0
  • M0 disassembler
  • Create a "glossary brochure for Github cruisers"
  • Implement function calls and returns
  • Make sure each M0 opcode is tested via Devel::Cover
  • Convert the M0 assembler to C
  • Convert the M0 interpreter to C
  • Link M0 into libparrot (no-op integration)

I have been talking to cotto++ on IRC while typing up these notes and we have come to the conclusion that a "bytecode verifier" should also be put on that list. A verifier is a utility that detects invalid bytecode and prevent attacks via malicious bytecode. This is something that happens at runtime, where as a bytecode checksum happens before runtime, or at the end of compile time. They provide different kinds of insurance. The bytecode checksum feature will be an instrinsic feature that is not optional, since it prevents Parrot from running known-bad bytecode. But a bytecode verifier adds a significant amount of overhead. This overhead is reasonable if you are running untrusted code, but it is unreasonable when your are running trusted bytecode (i.e. bytecode that you created), so the verifier will have an option to be turned off.

We obviously have a lot of fun stuff to work on, so if any of it sounds fun, come ask cotto++ or me (dukeleto) on #parrot on irc:// for some M0 stuff to do. We especially need help with writing tests and documentation.

There will be a Parrot hackathon at YAPC::NA this year, where I am sure some M0-related hacking will be happening. If you have never been to a hackathon before, I highly recommend them as a way to join a project and/or community. Meatspace is still the best medium for some things :)

(UPDATE: Some factual errors about our old JIT were pointed out by rafl++ and corrected)

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This page is an archive of entries from May 2011 listed from newest to oldest.

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